After reviewing my last post and list of casualties, readers asked for additional information such as a breakdown by rank, female (military and civilian) and why the earlier grouping didn’t include Hispanics. Thanks to the fine folks at: http://www.americanwarlibrary.com/vietnam I can provide that information here on my blog for you all. I strongly encourage you to also visit that website as there is more information available about the war.
Vietnam War Casualties
GRADE ARMY USMC USN USAF
E-1 142 380 3 0
E-2 476 5,630 69 11
E-3 12,818 4,378 641 149
E-4 11,516 0 618 248
E-5 5,130 725 324 227
E-6 2,231 298 186 136
E-7 986 114 67 66
E-8 192 32 13 33
E-9 51 18 4 40
W-1 905 6 4 0
W-2 281 7 0 0
W-3 59 2 0 0
W-4 6 2 0 4
O-1 496 284 18 8
O-2 1,475 309 153 236
O-3 1,017 30 92 187
O-4 253 78 166 399
O-5 117 30 92 187
O-6 19 7 25 184
O-7 5 0 1 1
O-8 2 1 0 2
Data compiled William F. Abbott from figures obtained shortly after the construction of the Vietnam War Memorial
The DoD database contains no info on Hispanic-American casualties. Hispanics can be of any race, but the 1980 census revealed that only 2.6% regard themselves as black. In a massive sampling of the database we were able to establish that between 5.0 and 6.0> had Hispanic surnames. These were Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban and other Latino-Americans with ancestries based in Central and South Amer. The 1970 census which we are using as our V’nam era population base, estimated Hispanic-Americans at 4.5% of the US population.
Thus we think it is safe to say that Hispanic-Americans were over-represented among Vietnam casualties-an estimated 5.5% of the casualties against 4.5% of the 1970 population. These casualties came largely from California and Texas with lesser numbers from Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida and New York and some from many states across the country.
Casualties by Country in Southeast Asia
Country Army USMC Navy USAF
Cambodia 459 16 2 44
China — — 6 —
Laos 214 22 33 457
N’ Vietnam 13 47 590 422
Thailand — — — 177
S’ Vietnam 37,496 14,734 1,904 1,476
It should be noted that 2,502 or 4.3% of all casualties took place outside of South Vietnam. 70% of these were Navy and Air Force personnel, most of them the pilots and crewmen who flew the recon and bombing sorties into North Vietnam, Laos and Thailand.
The Cambodian invasion launched in 1970 to interdict North Vietnam supplies on the Ho Chi Minh trail was largely an Army op resulting in 459 Army casualties – 88.0% of the 521 total casualties.
20% of all officer casualties in all the 4 services took place outside of South Vietnam.
55% of all Navy and Air Force officer casualties came as the result of action outside of South Vietnam.
On the Vietnam Vets Memorial Wall a plus sign (+) indicates that the casualty is missing in action (MIA). There were 1300 casualties who were and are listed as MIA. The great majority of these men were Air Force and Navy pilots who were shot down in all the countries of Southeast Asia that are shown above.
Military Females – 8 nurses – names are on the wall.
Capt. Mary Therese Klinker Capt. Klinker, a flight nurse with the 10th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron temporarily assigned to Clark Air Base in the Philippines, was on the C-5A Galaxy which crashed on April 4 outside Saigon while evacuating Vietnamese orphans. This is known as the Operation Babylift crash. From Lafayette, IN, she was 27. She was posthumously awarded the Airman’s Medal for Heroism and the Meritorious Service Medal.
2nd Lt. Elizabeth Ann Jones
2nd Lt. Carol Ann Elizabeth Drazba Lt. Drazba and Lt. Jones were assigned to the 3rd Field Hospital in Saigon. They died in a helicopter crash near Saigon, February 18, 1966. Drazba was from Dunmore, PA, Jones from Allendale, SC. Both were 22 years old.
Lt. Col. Annie Ruth Graham Chief Nurse at 91st Evac. Hospital, Tuy Hoa. From Efland, NC, she suffered a stroke in August 14, 1968 and was evacuated to Japan where she died four days later. A veteran of both World War II and Korea, she was 52. Buried at Arlington National Cemetery
1st Lt. Sharon Ann Lane Lt. Lane died from shrapnel wounds when the 312th Evac. at Chu Lai was hit by rockets on June 8, 1969. From Canton, OH, she was a month short of her 26th birthday. She was posthumously awarded the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm and the Bronze Star for Heroism.
2nd Lt. Pamela Dorothy Donovan Lt. Donovan, born in Wirral, Merseyside, UK of Irish parents, and raised in Brighton MA, became seriously ill and died on July 8, 1968 in Gia Dinh, South Vietnam. She was assigned to the 85th Evac. in Qui Nhon and was 26 years old at her death
1st Lt. Hedwig Diane Orlowski
Capt. Eleanor Grace Alexander Capt. Alexander of Westwood, NJ, and Lt. Orlowski of Detroit, MI, died November 30, 1967. Alexander, stationed at the 85th Evac., and Orlowski, stationed at the 67th Evac. in Qui Nhon, had been sent to a hospital in Pleiku to help out during a push.
If you would like to learn more about these women listed above, then visit this link: http://www.illyria.com/women/vnwlist.html
Casualties – Married vs. Single
Enlisted Army USMC USN USAF
Married 9,180 2,125 598 492
Single 23,343 11,773 1,323 344
Married 2,599 534 398 1,245
Single 2,030 387 222 333
The USMC, youngest of all the enlisted men, had the lowest percentage of married men. Air Force enlisted men, older and with longer service, had a majority of married men.
Officers, generally older with longer service and greater means, had a 60% married rate among its casualties. Almost 3-quarters of all Air Force officers were married. Over 70% of all Air Force casualties were married men.
Casualties By Medal of Honor Recepients-Posthumous
Rank ARMY USMC USN USAF
Enlisted 76 39 4 0
Officer 20 5 2 3
Of the 204 Medals of Honor awarded during the Vietnam War, 73% were awarded posthumously.
80% of the posthumous Medals of Honor were awarded to enlisted men. Whites accounted for 87% of the Medals of Honor, Blacks 11% and Asians were awarded 3%. 10 of the awards were given to men with Hispanic surnames.
50% of the posthumous Medals of Honor were awarded to men 18 to 21, 72% to men 18 to 24 and 88% to men 18 to 29.
Protestants were awarded 64% of the posthumous Medals of Honor, 30% went to Catholics and 1 to a Buddhist. 9 men had no religious preference or it was unknown/unreported.
102 of the Medals of Honor were awarded posthumously to single men and 47 of the men were married.
Casualties By Most Common Surname
100 surnames account for 11,417 or 20% of the names on the wall.
Brown — 383 Bryant — 50 Burns — 52
Butler — 54 Campbell — 94 Carter — 108
Clark(e) — 170 Coleman — 50 Collins — 79
Cook(e) — 99 Cooper — 62 Cox — 75
Davis — 298 Ellis — 56 Evans — 98
Ferguson — 51 Ford — 54 Foster — 75
Garcia — 102 Gonzalez(s) 85 Good — 100
Graham — 61 Gray — 82 Green(e) — 161
Hall — 111 Hamilton — 67 Harris — 138
Harrison — 51 Hayes — 59 Hernandez(s) 53
Hill — 119 Howard — 61 Hughes — 66
Jackson — 178 James — 60 Jenkins — 66
Johnson — 526 Jones — 350 Kelly — 61
King — 111 Lee — 98 Lewis — 115
Long — 69 Lopez — 58 Martin — 175
Miller — 282 Mitchell — 104 Moore — 205
Morgan — 84 Morris — 77 Murphy — 82
Myers — 51 Nelson — 119 Parker — 92
Patterson 55 Perry — 61 Peterson — 86
Phillips — 94 Pierce — 50 Powell — 62
Price — 67 Reed — 71 Richardson 71
Roberts — 95 Robinson — 116 Rodriguez(s)82
Rogers — 75 Ross — 70 Russell — 58
Sanders — 59 Scott — 123 Simmons — 54
Smith — 667 Stewart — 80 Sullivan — 61
Taylor — 201 Thomas — 185 Thompson — 182
Turner — 85 Walker — 128 Wallace — 56
Ward — 73 Watson — 73 West — 58
White — 172 Williams — 406 Wilson — 210
Woods — 52 Wright — 134 Young — 122
Hannah E. Crews – Died in a jeep accident, Bien Hoa, October 2, 1969
Virginia E. Kirsch – Murdered by a U.S. soldier in Cu Chi, August 16, 1970
Lucinda J. Richter – Died of Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Cam Ranh Bay, February 9, 1971
Civilian – Army Special Services
Rosalyn Muskat – Died in a jeep accident, Long Binh, October 26, 1968
Dorothy Phillips – Died in a plane crash, Qui Nhon, 1967
Civilian – Catholic Relief Services
Gloria Redlin – Shot in Pleiku, 1969
Civilian – Central Intelligence Agency
Barbara Robbins – Died when a car bomb exploded outside the American Embassy, Saigon, March 30, 1965
Betty Gebhardt – Died in Saigon, 1971
Civilian – Entertainer
Cathy Wayne – Australian murdered by a soldier who shot at his commander, but she was in the way.
Civilian – Journalists
Georgette “Dickey” Chapelle -Killed by a mine on patrol with Marines outside Chu Lai, November 4, 1965 (pictured above)
Marguerite Higgins Died after picking up a parasite on her last visit to Vietnam, January 3, 1966
Philippa Schuyler Killed in a helicopter crash into the ocean near Da Nang, May 9, 1967
Civilian Volunteers – Knights of Malta
Maria L. Kerbeer – Dental Assistant, age 20, died due to illness in a POW camp in late 1969. Her remains have never been recovered.
Hindrika Kortman – Nurse, age 29. Both women were assigned to a Knights of Malta volunteer hospital called the “Maltaserhildienst Hospital” in the Danang area. On April 27, 1969, they were lured to a village in Que Son district by a female communist agent also working at the hospital as a nurse under the pretext of taking pictures of the local scenery.
On April 10, 1986, the communists repatriated what they said were the remains of an American Marine captured and held as a POW during the war. An examination of the remains determined that they were actually the remains of Ms Kortman.
Civilian – Missionaries
Ruth Thompson – Killed in a raid on the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot, February 1, 1968 (pictured above)
Evelyn Anderson – Captured and burned to death in Kengkok, Laos, 1972
Carolyn Griswald – Killed in a raid on the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot during Tet 1968
Beatrice Kosin – Captured and burned to death in Kengkok, Laos, 1972
Janie A. Makil – Shot in an ambush, Dalat, March 4, 1963. She was four months old
Betty Ann Olsen – Captured during a raid on the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot during Tet 1968. Died in 1968 and was buried somewhere along the Ho Chi Minh Trail by fellow POW, Michael Benge.
Eleanor Ardel Vietti – Captured at leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot, May 30, 1962. Still listed as POW.
Ruth Wilting – Killed in a raid on the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot, February 1, 1968
Civilian – United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Marilyn L. Allan – Murdered by a U.S. soldier in Nha Trang, August 16, 1967
Dr. Breen Ratterman – American Medical Association – died from injuries suffered in a fall from her apartment balcony in Saigon, October 2, 1969
Civilian – U.S. Department of the Navy OICC
(Officer in Charge of Construction)
Regina “Reggie” Williams – Died of a heart attack in Saigon, 1964
Civilian – New Zealand Foreign Affairs Ministry (?)
Sister Lesley Cowper – Died May 2, 1966 (68?) Member of the New Zealand Surgical Team based at Qui Nhon. Buried in Auckland NZ.
The following women were killed in the crash, outside Saigon, of the C5-A Galaxy transporting Vietnamese children out of the country on April 4, 1975. All of the women were working for various U.S. government agencies in Saigon at the time of their deaths with the exception of Theresa Drye (a child), Laurie Stark (a teacher) and Nova Bell (a student at the University of Maryland Far East Division in Saigon & the wife of an employee in the US Defense Attach� Office in Saigon.) Capt. Mary Therese Klinker was killed in the crash, but is listed above.
Sharon Wesley had previously worked for both the American Red Cross and Army Special Services. She chose to stay on in Vietnam after the pullout of U.S. military forces in 1973.
Barbara Adams Clara Bayot Nova Bell
Arleta Bertwell Helen Blackburn Ann Bottorff
Celeste Brown Vivienne Clark Juanita Creel
Mary Ann Crouch Dorothy Curtiss Theresa Drye
Mary Lyn Eichen Elizabeth Fugino Ruthanne Gasper
Beverly Herbert Penelope Hindman Vera Hollibaugh
Dorothy Howard Barbara Kauvulia Lee Makk
Rebecca Martin Sara Martini Martha Middlebrook
Katherine Moore Marta Moschkin Margaret Joan Pray
Sayonna Randall Anne Reynolds Marjorie Snow
Laurie Stark Barbara Stout Doris Jean Watkins
Sharon Wesley Twila Donelson Marion Polgrean
Barbara Maier Moses Helen Drye June Poulton
“They shall not grow old, as we that are left grow old,
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn,
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.”
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